AI for Social Good papers

2020
Hobbs J, Paull R, Markowicz B, Rose G. Flowering density estimation from aerial imagery for automated pineapple flower counting, in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

Deep Learning is changing the face of agriculture. Combined with high-resolution aerial imagery, these methods enable farmers to understand and manage their farms with previously unseen precision and efficiency. Beyond reducing costs for an industry already under significant economic stress, these advances have key environmental benefits as well: maximizing production, reducing waste, anticipating disruptions to supply chains, and limiting the use of chemicals and water through targeted application. Our approach uses a U-net based neural network to predict the density of flowering pineapple plants from aerial imagery, enabling farmers to optimize their harvesting schedule.

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Flowering density estimation from aerial imagery for automated pineapple flower counting
Georgara A, Sierra C, ́ıguez-Aguilar JAR. Edu2Com: an anytime algorithm to form student teams in companies., in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

In this paper we consider the problem of forming student teams adequate for company internship tasks. First, we provide a formalisation of the Feasible Team-For-Task Allocation Problem, and show the computational hardness of solving it optimally. Thereafter, we propose Edu2Com, an any- time heuristic algorithm that generates an initial team allocation that is then improved in an iterative process. Finally, we conduct a systematic evaluation and show that Edu2Com manages to (a) out- perform CPLEX in computation time, and (b) reach optimality, in the experiments considered.

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Edu2Com: an anytime algorithm to form student teams in companies.
Das S, Steffen S, Reddy P, Brynjolfsson E, Fleming M. Forecasting Task-Shares and Characterizing Occupational Change across Industry Sectors, in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has started to transform our economy and society, more specifically, AI has the potential to make both labor and machines more productive while displacing certain human tasks and simultaneously introducing new tasks into the economy. Using online job postings data, this pa- per proposes novel methodologies to characterize the dynamic evolution of occupational task-share demands across different industries in the U.S. la- bor market and estimates the implied US-$ market values for skills. The paper develops a multi-variate and multi-step long short term memory (LSTM) network architecture to estimate 12-month and 24- month ahead forecasts of task-shares with 10% root mean-squared error. The industry-specific insights on occupation evolution and forecasts on task- shares will facilitate the policy-makers and strategy leaders’ decision-making to transform the current workforce for the future.

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Forecasting Task-Shares and Characterizing Occupational Change across Industry Sectors
de Bie K, Kishore N, Rentsch A, Rosado P, Sipka A. Using AI to help healthcare professionals stay up-to-date with medical research, in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

Staying up-to-date with current medical research can be a challenge for doctors and other medi- cal decision-makers. Systematic reviews are one of the key tools that doctors use to stay informed. These are meta-analyses of all the relevant research with the intention of answering one specific ques- tion within the healthcare domain. Cochrane pro- duces systematic reviews of medical research that are globally considered as a gold standard for high- quality healthcare information. However, because of the high volume of papers published and the fact that Cochrane’s review authors are volunteers, it can take up to three years to write and publish one of these reviews. Our research focuses on speeding up this process. We propose a hybrid human-AI system to establish the topical area of a newly pub- lished paper faster, easing the process of searching for papers to include in a review.

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Using AI to help healthcare professionals stay up-to-date with medical research
Trivedi A, Keator K, Verma A, Dodhia R, Ferres JL. ECO: Using AI for Everyday Armed Conflict Analysis, in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

Conflict resolution practitioners consistently struggle with access to structured armed conflict data, a dataset already rife with uncertainty, inconsistency, and politicization. Due to the lack of a standardized approach to collating conflict data, publicly available armed conflict datasets often require manipulation depending upon the needs of end users. Transformation of armed conflict data tends to be a manual, time consuming task that nonprofits with limited budgets struggle to keep up with. In this paper, we explore the use of a deep natural language processing (NLP) model to aid the transformation of armed conflict data for conflict analysis. Our model drastically reduces the time spent on manual data transformations and improves armed conflict event classification by identifying multiple incidence types. This minimizes the human supervision cost and allows nonprofits to access a broader range of conflict data sources to reduce reporting bias. Thus our model contributes to the incorporation of technology in the peace building and conflict resolution sector.

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ECO: Using AI for Everyday Armed Conflict Analysis
Mohla S, Mohla S, Guha A. Green is the new Black: Multimodal Noisy Segmentation based fragmented burn scars identification in Amazon Rainforest. AI for Social Good Workshop. 2020.Abstract

Detection of burn marks due to wildfires in inaccessible rain forests is important for various disaster management and ecological studies. The fragmented nature of arable landscapes and diverse cropping patterns often thwart the precise mapping of burn scars. Recent advances in remote-sensing and availability of multimodal data offer a viable solution to this mapping problem. However, the task to segment burn marks is difficult because of its indistinguishably with similar looking land patterns, severe fragmented nature of burn marks and partially labelled noisy datasets. In this work we present AmazonNET – a convolutional based network that allows extracting of burn patters from multimodal remote sensing images. The network consists of UNet- a well-known encoder decoder type of architecture with skip connections. The proposed framework utilises stacked RGB-NIR channels to segment burn scars from the pastures by training on a new weakly labelled noisy dataset from Amazonia. Our model illustrates superior performance by correctly identifying partially labelled burn scars and rejecting incorrectly labelled samples, demonstrating our approach as one of the first to effectively utilise deep learning based segmentation models in multimodal burn scar identification.

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Green is the new Black: Multimodal Noisy Segmentation based fragmented burn scars identification in Amazon Rainforest
P D. Whither Fair Clustering? , in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

Within the relatively busy area of fair machine learning that has been dominated by classification fairness research, fairness in clustering has started to see some recent attention. In this position paper, we assess the existing work in fair clustering and observe that there are several directions that are yet to be explored, and postulate that the state-of-the- art in fair clustering has been quite parochial in out- look. We posit that widening the normative prin- ciples to target for, characterizing shortfalls where the target cannot be achieved fully, and making use of knowledge of downstream processes can significantly widen the scope of research in fair clustering research. At a time when clustering and unsupervised learning are being increasingly used to make and influence decisions that matter significantly to human lives, we believe that widening the ambit of fair clustering is of immense significance.

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Whither Fair Clustering?
Chen X, Liu Z. The Fairness of Leximin in Allocation of Indivisible Chores, in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

The leximin solution — which selects an allocation that maximizes the minimum utility, then the sec- ond minimum utility, and so forth — is known to provide EFX (envy-free up to any good) fairness guarantee in some contexts when allocating indi- visible goods. However, it remains unknown how fair the leximin solution is when used to allocate in- divisible chores. In this paper, we demonstrate that the leximin solution can be modified to also provide compelling fairness guarantees for the allocation of indivisible chores. First, we generalize the defini- tion of the leximin solution. Then, we show that the leximin solution finds a PROP1 (proportional up to one good) and PO (Pareto-optimal) allocation for 3 or 4 agents in the context of chores allocation with additive distinct valuations. Additionally, we prove that the leximin solution is EFX for combi- nations of goods and chores for agents with general but identical valuations.

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The Fairness of Leximin in Allocation of Indivisible Chores
Huang T, Dilkina B. Enhancing Seismic Resilience of Water Pipe Networks , in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

As disasters such as earthquakes and floods be- come more frequent and detrimental, it is increas- ingly important that water infrastructure resilience be strategically enhanced to support post-disaster functionality and recovery. In this paper, we focus on the problem of strategically building seismic- resilient pipe networks to ensure direct water sup- ply to critical customers and certain proximity to water sources for residential areas, which we for- malize as the Steiner network problem with cov- erage constraints. We present an efficient mixed- integer linear program encoding to solve the prob- lem. We also investigate the problem of planning partial network installments to maximize efficiency over time and propose an effective sequential plan- ning algorithm to solve it. We evaluate our algo- rithms on synthetic water networks and apply them to a case study on a water service zone in Los An- geles, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for large-scale real-world applications.

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Enhancing Seismic Resilience of Water Pipe Networks
Zhu Z, Gong J, Feeley C, Vo H, Tang H, Ruci A, Seiple B, Wu ZY. SAT-Hub: Smart and Accessible Transportation Hub for Assistive Navigation and Facility Management, in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

The goal of the proposed project is to transform a large transportation hub into a smart and accessible hub (SA T-Hub), with minimal infrastructure change. The societal need is significant, especially impactful for people in great need, such as those who are blind and visually impaired (BVI) or with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as well as those unfamiliar with metropolitan areas. With our inter- disciplinary background in urban systems, sensing, AI and data analytics, accessibility, and paratransit and assistive services, our solution is a hu- man-centric system approach that integrates facility modeling, mobile navigation, and user interface designs. We leverage several transportation facili- ties in the heart of New York City and throughout the State of New Jersey as testbeds for ensuring the relevance of the research and a smooth transition to real world applications.

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SAT-Hub: Smart and Accessible Transportation Hub for Assistive Navigation and Facility Management
Miller L, Rüdiger C, Webb GI. Using AI and Satellite Earth Observation to Monitor UN Sustainable Development Indicators, in AI for Social Good Workshop. ; 2020.Abstract

There is widespread acceptance that data from earth observation satellites, combined with artificial intelligence, have the potential to play an important role to enable the quantification of the United Nations Sustainable Development Indicators (SDIs). However, building workflows that allow accurate and timely measurement of the SDIs from sub-national to global scales is proving challenging. We discuss a research program that aims to develop techniques to meet these challenges and help provide member states of the UN with effective methods of monitoring progress towards meeting the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

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Using AI and Satellite Earth Observation to Monitor UN Sustainable Development Indicators

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